2013 Oscars: Oscar Awards winners’ list

Oscars winners were announced at the 85th annual Academy Awards Sunday night live from the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles. "Argo" swept the show winning Best Picture while Daniel Day-Lewis won Best Actor for his role in "Lincoln." For the ladies, Jennifer Lawrence won Best Actress for "Silver Linings Playbook" and Anne Hathaway won Best Supporting Actress for her role of Fantine in "Les Miserables." Christoph Waltz won in the Best Supporting Actor category for "Django Unchained."

Below is a full list of the 2013 Oscars winners.
Best Picture Winner: Argo directed by Ben Affleck

Best Actor in a Leading Role Winner: Daniel Day-Lewis (Lincoln)

Best Actor in a Leading Role Female Winner: Jennifer Lawrence (Silver Linings Playbook)

Best Director Winner: Ang Lee (Life of Pi)

Best Actor in a Supporting Role Winner: Christoph Waltz (Django Unchained)

Best Actor in a Supporting Role Female Winner:
Anne Hathaway (Les Miserables)

Best Animated Feature Winner: Brave (Pixar Animation Studios)

Best Cinematography Winner: Claudio Miranda (Life of Pi)

Best Costume Design Winner: Jacqueline Durran (Anna Karenina)

Best Documentary Feature Winner: Malik Bendjelloul and Simon Chinn (Searching for Sugar Man)
Best Documentary Short Winner: Sean Fine and Andrea Nix Fine (Inocente)

Best Film Editing Winner: William Goldenberg (Argo)

Best Foreign Language Film Winner: Amour (Austria)

Best Music Original Score Winner: Mychael Danna (Life of Pi)
Best Original Song Winner: Skyfall from Skyfall (Music and Lyric by Adele Adkins and Paul Epworth)

Best Production Design Winner: Lincoln – Rick Carter (Production Design); Jim Erickson (Set Decoration)

Best Animated Short Film Winner: Paperman

Best Live Action Short Film Winner:
Curfew.
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How is coal mined? - What is Surface Mining and Underground Mining - Video

How is coal mined?

Mining is the process of removing coal from the ground.
There are two types of mining: underground mining and surface mining. When the coal seam is fewer than 125 feet under the surface, it is mined by surface mining. Coal that is deeper than 125 feet is removed from the ground by underground mining.

Surface Mining (Open Cast Mining)


Surface Mining (Open Cast Mining) Video

Surface mining is used when a coal seam is located close to the surface. Heavy equipment is used to clear the land of trees, shrubs and topsoil.

Holes are drilled into the rock and explosives are placed in these holes. The explosion breaks up the dirt and rock called overburden.

Large earth-moving machines move the overburden to expose the coal seam. When the coal is uncovered, bulldozers and shovels scoop up the coal and load it into large trucks. All of the coal is mined.
In 2000, there were six surface mines in Illinois. The surface mines produced 3,800,000 tons of coal and employed 330 miners. After mining the topsoil is replaced for plants and wildlife to grow again.

Surface Mining (Opencast Mining) Photos - My Photography Snaps

When the trucks are loaded, they will haul the coal
to the preparation plant.




Safety inspectors carefully monitor the drilling and blasting
process.



Dumper - Open Cast Mining

Underground mining

Underground Mining Video

Underground mining is used when the coal seam lies deep in the earth. In an underground mine only some of the coal is removed. The coal that remains helps support the mine roof.

Underground mines look like a system of tunnels. The tunnels are used for traveling throughout the mine, moving coal from place to place and allowing air to circulate in the mine.

The coal that is mined is put on conveyor belts. The conveyor belts take the coal to the surface.

There are three types of underground mines: slope, drift, and shaft. When the coal seam is close to the surface but too deep to use surface mining, a slope mine can be built. In a slope mine a tunnel slants down from the surface to the coal seam.

A drift mine is built when the coal seam lies in the side of a hill or mountain. Drift mines may also be built in a surface mine that has become too deep. There are many drift mines in the eastern United States.
The most common type of mine in Illinois is the shaft mine. These mines may be 125 to 1,000 feet deep. A large hole, or shaft, is drilled down into the ground until it reaches the coal seam.

Two Types of Underground Mining
In Illinois, two types of underground mining are used: room and pillar mining and long-wall mining. Room and pillar mining leaves pillars, or blocks, of coal in the mine to support the roof. In long-wall mining the roof is allowed to collapse in a planned sequence. More coal is mined during long-wall mining.

Continuous miner machines are used to cut the coal in room and pillar mining. Continuous miners have a large rotating drum that moves up and down. Strong bits on the drum cut the coal. As the coal falls, large arms under the drum gather the coal onto a conveyor chain. The conveyor chain carries the coal to the back of the machine. The coal is unloaded at the back of the machine onto ram cars. The ram cars haul the coal to a conveyor belt.

Long-wall mining removes more coal than room and pillar mining. Large panels of coal are extracted. The panels are 750 to 1,000 feet wide. The continuous miner cuts tunnels 18 to 20 feet wide.

The long-wall machine has large shields that support the roof and protect the miners during mining.

A rotating drum, called a shearer, cuts the coal. The coal drops onto a conveyor belt. As more of the coal is cut, the machine moves forward.

The roof behind the machine falls in a planned order.

In 2000, there were 12 underground mines in Illinois. The 3,131 employed miners produced 29,700,000 tons of coal.
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